A case study developed by the Commission’s Horizon 2020 expert group to update and expand “Gendered Innovations/Innovation through Gender”

Although infectious diseases can affect everyone, sex and gender can significantly impact immune responses and the course of the disease in the human body. Worldwide statistics show that more men than women suffer severe effects of the COVID-19 disease and are dying of acute infection. Women appear to be producing more antibodies in response to infection. The reasons may be hormonal, genetic or even related to differences in intestinal bacteria. Behavioural differences have also been put forward, for example, men are more likely to be smokers and women wash their hands more often. At the same time, women also experience more medication side-effects than men, which calls for close attention to be paid to dosing and sex-specific side effects of vaccines and therapeutics.

You can find the EC factsheet here